From antiquity it was realized how important hygiene was to the quality of life of people living in cities. For the first time in the history of mankind, an organized sewerage network was developed in Minoan Crete in 3,000 BC.
A sewerage network with an excellent construction, as well as important sanitary facilities. If you want help with your sewerage call Αποφράξεις Αναγνώστου Ψυχικό. However, it seems that at the same time there was a sewerage network in the Indus Valley.
From istorical background of sewerage, we can tell Minoans and Indians considered to be pioneers in the construction of sewerage networks.
The Crete sewerage system
In many cities of Crete the sewers were covered with stone and drained the liquid waste together with the rain water. This has resulted in better sewer cleaning, reduced odor problems as well as reduced hygiene problems.
Rainwater was collected from the roofs of buildings in small tanks. One of their uses was to clean sewers and toilets. In the Minoan palaces, each section of the palace had a sewer system.
It was connected to a central one. In fact in the palace of Knossos the total length of the sewer system exceeded 150m. Apart from Knossos, Phaistos and Zakros had sewerage systems.
Later in the Archaic period
Ancient Greeks improved the technology in water management and sewerage networks. Also in the hygiene of urban centers, building bathrooms, toilets and sewerage networks. In the following centuries, the Hippodameian urban system adopted in many cities.
Creation of large and straight streets included in this, as well as organized urban squares with parallel streets around the central market. The result was the creation of better conditions for construction and operation of sewer systems.
5th century Athens sewerage
During this period the city moved from the citadel to the market. Market, in this way became the center of political, social and commercial activity. Gradually began to develop hygiene technologies in the market.
Also, the quality of life and healthy living gradually began to become very important In this way, public toilets and baths were built. In addition, a large pipeline was constructed to transport waste out of the city. This pipeline was one meter wide, its sides were made of stone. Base was made of tiles and it was covered with stone slabs.
Around the same time, Delos, the sacred island of Apollo, had a technically complex and efficient sewerage network. Each house on the island had a pipeline that carried the waste to central rectangles and underground sewers.
From these the wastes ended up in the sea. Also, it is characteristic that toilets were found in 68% of the 102 residential units of the island.
Ancient Pella sewerage system
Capital of the Macedonian kingdom, also had a well-organized water supply and sewerage network, which ran under the city streets. There were also galleries that carried water from the mountain springs. Many houses and public buildings had baths.
The central sewer system was mixed, paved with slabs. It used to transport excess rainwater and municipal waste to the oily areas outside the city.
Impressive is the fact that Pella in 325-300 BC. It had one of the oldest bathrooms with underfloor heating as well as innovative water supply and sewerage systems. The bathroom was equipped with a swimming pool, sweatshirts as well as individual and group baths.
Underfloor heating was a technological innovation of the time. We see underground pipes for lukewarm and cold water. That clearly proves that the systems of Roman times were the result of know-how acquired in ancient Pella.
New ages sewerage system
For the first time in the modern history of Athens, around 1840, an attempt was made for a systematic construction. A system constuction for the collection and transport of wastewater and rainwater. In 1860 the Pantorroic pipeline of the Stadium was built by the first French Public Works Mission. Pipeline expanded earlier in 1870.
In the decade 1880-1890, the open stream of Kyklovoros was covered with a large diameter stone pipeline (approximately 3 m.).
Until 1893 the constructed sewerage network had a total length of about 11.5 km.Development degree of the city was such that it required a sewerage network of 90 km. The sewerage needs of the city were about eight times.
In the following years, the Asia Minor catastrophe in 1922, caused a strong refugee influx. The need to build sewerage projects became even more urgent.
In 1925, the Municipality of Athens studied and built the “New Large Pipeline”.At the same time a large technical project was constructed. The contribution of the two “Large Pipelines” on Marni and Peoniou streets.
In 1930 the construction of a sewage pipeline of the Profitis Daniel stream was completed with the recipient of the Faliriko Delta. It was an oval pipeline with a land length of about 6.5 km and a submarine route of about 700 m.
In 1931, the “Athens and Suburbs Sewer Construction Societe Anonyme” was established, to which the Greek state commissioned the final study of the Athens and Suburbs network for dirty and rainwater based on the preliminary design of the Italian professor of hydraulics Fandoli.
At the same time, the Municipality of Athens banned the construction of absorption cisterns on all roads where a network had been constructed and deprived individuals of the right to construct and operate sewage and stormwater pipes in the city.
Years 1934 – 1939
During this times, a large program of construction of sewerage projects was implemented, which included the coverage of 17 important streams, the construction of large pipelines on Rigillis and Vasilissis Sofias streets and the construction of a flood trench on Philopappou Hill.
At the same time, based on the preliminary design of Professor Fantoli, three basic infrastructure projects were constructed in Athens, despite the beginning of World War II, which concerned:
- Construction of the Central Sewerage (KAA)
- Large and basic collector construction, after a final study prepared for Ilissos.
- The arrangement of parts of Kifissos.
From 1950 onwards, Athens developed rapidly in urban planning. Thus, the urgent need for large sewerage projects led to the establishment of the Capital Sewerage Organization (CAP).
OAP laid the foundations for the infrastructure of the sewerage system of the city of Athens, but also for the long-term planning of the future needs of the Capital in networks of sewage and flood protection.
In 1950, the preliminary study for the sewerage of the area of the Capital in an area of 200,000 acres began, which was finalized and submitted to the state authorities in 1963.
This preliminary study was used as a basis for the development of networks in the 1960s and 1970s, after undergoing continuous modifications by from 1963 to 1977.
In total, during the operation of OAP, between 1950 and 1980, 1,700 km long and 300 km long rainwater works were constructed, including the Coastal Collector of the Saronic Coast and the Parakifisios Collector.
Responsibilities of OAP (Capital Sewerage Organization) were transferred in 1980 to the unified management body of water supply and sewerage of Athens, EYDAP.
In the field of sewerage, this new body undertook the discharge of sewage and industrial waste. Also, he took control of the wastewater treatment process and their final disposal at sea.
Obligations of the former OAP, EYDAP did not undertake the construction of the secondary sewers and the connection of the real estate with the networks, which were assigned to the Local Authorities.
From the beginning of EYDAP operation, the sewerage network of Athens was expanded and thickened with the construction of many kilometers of pipelines, to reach today the total length of the sewerage network to reach 8,000 km.